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Pakistan
About Pakistan
The Islamic republic of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as an independent sovereign state on 14th August 1947, as a result of the division of former British India. It lies between 23-35 to 37- 05 north latitude and 60-50 to 77- 50 east longitude touching the Hindukush Mountains in the north and extending from the Pamirs to the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by Iran in the west, Afghanistan in the north-west, India in the east and south east and Arabian Sea in the south. There is a common border with China alongside Gilgit and Baltistan in the north.

Pakistan covers 796,095 sq.km with a population of 132.35 million according to population census 1998. It is divided into four provinces: Sindh, Punjab, North West Frontier Province and Balochistan. It consists of such physical regions as a) the western offshoots of Himalayas which cover its northern and north western parts of which the highest peak K-2 rises to 8611 meters above sea level; b) the Balochistan plateau c) The Potohar Plateau and salt range and d) The Indus plain, the most fertile and densely populated area of the country getting its sustenance from the Indus River and its tributaries.

Religiously Pakistan is an Islamic country where 96.28 % of population prays towards Makkah. Christians are 1.95 % of the population whereas Hindus are 1.60 % and schedule Hindus represent 0.25 %. Qadiyanis have relatively small community with only 0.22 % representing the new religion. Others are 0.07 % which includes Sikhs and other religious communities.

Climatically, Pakistan enjoys a considerable measure of variety. North and north western high mountainous ranges are extremely cold in winter while the summer months of April to September are very pleasant. The plains of the Indus valley are extremely hot in summer with a cold and dry weather in winter. The coastal strip in the South has a moderate climate. There is a general deficiency of rainfall. In the plains annual average ranges from 16 centimeters in the northern parts of lower Indus plain to 120 centimeters in the Himalayan region. Rains are monsoonal in origin and fall late in summers. Due to the rainfall and high diurnal range of temperature, humidity is comparatively low. Only the coastal strip has high humidity. The country has an agricultural economy with a network of canals irrigating a major part of its cultivated land. Wheat, cotton, rice, millet and sugar cane are the major crops. Among fruits: mangos, oranges, bananas and apples are grown in abundance in different parts of the country. The main natural resources are natural gas, coal, salt and iron. The country has an expanding industry. Cotton, Textiles, sugar, cement, and chemicals play an important role in its economy. It is fed by vast hydroelectric power.

Urdu is the national language and is used as a medium of understanding throughout the country. Pakistan is culturally divided into four bilingual provinces. Punjabi is spoken in the Punjab, Sindhi in Sindh, Pashto in NWFP, and Balochi in Balochistan. The country comprises of a vast area that was the great center of ancient civilizations of the world. Its historical sites beginning with stone-age to Twentieth Century A.D are a mirror of the life of its people who are by nature simple, virile, hospitable and hard working. Ancient sites excavated in Taxila, Harappa, and Moenjodaro speak volumes for Pakistan rich cultural background dating back to 3,000 B.C.


President
The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. According to the Constitution of Pakistan, the President has "powers, subject to Supreme Court approval or veto, to dissolve the National Assembly, triggering new elections, and thereby dismissing the Prime Minister".These powers were repeatedly modified through amendments to the constitution, which were introduced as the results of military coups and changes in government. Since the 18th Amendment to the Constitution was passed in 2010, Pakistan has been shifted back from semi-presidential to a parliamentary democratic republic. Under that system, the president has limited ruling powers, and performs ceremonial duties while the Prime Minister enjoys more powers to execute decisions.The president is chosen by the Electoral College composed of the Senate, the National Assembly and the Provincial Assemblies.

http://www.presidentofpakistan.gov.pk/

Prime Minister
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's chief executive.By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government, where the Prime Minister is the executive authority and political leader of the country and presides over the Cabinet. Nawaz Sharif is the current Prime Minister of Pakistan.

The Prime Minister is elected by the people-elected National Assembly, members of which are elected by popular vote. Most commonly, the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations, taking and authorizing executive decisions, appointments and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister. The XVII imposed a check on this power, making it subject to Supreme Court approval or veto. However, in 2010, the XVII Amendment was reversed and is replaced with more effective XVIII Amendment to the Constitution, clearly turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary democratic republic.


Cabinet
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's chief executive.By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government, where the Prime Minister is the executive authority and political leader of the country and presides over the Cabinet. Nawaz Sharif is the current Prime Minister of Pakistan.

The Prime Minister is elected by the people-elected National Assembly, members of which are elected by popular vote. Most commonly, the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations, taking and authorizing executive decisions, appointments and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister. The XVII imposed a check on this power, making it subject to Supreme Court approval or veto. However, in 2010, the XVII Amendment was reversed and is replaced with more effective XVIII Amendment to the Constitution, clearly turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary democratic republic.

http://www.cabinet.gov.pk/
 
Senate

http://www.senate.gov.pk/

National Assembly
The Pakistani National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate (upper house). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority.


Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Newly elected members taking oath on 1 June 2013.

Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. The National Assembly can also be dissolved at anytime by the President of Pakistan, upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

http://www.na.gov.pk/en/index.php

Tourism
Information pertaining to Tourism in Pakistan are available on following links:

Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

Pakistan International Airlines (PIA)